Phenomenological research is the study of lived experience, the study of the world as we immediately experience it directly or before reflection. Phenomenology seeks to gain a deeper understanding of the meaning of everyday experiences. and asks, “What is this experience like?’ and “How did individuals and groups of people experience the phenomena”?
Life History Oral History (Creswell, 2013) Narrative Interviews Personal Accounts/Narratives (single event or episode) Lived Experience
Non-probability Sampling Purposeful/Criterion Sampling
Data Collection (Methods)
In depth, semi-structured interviews Personal Documents/Artifacts Conversations Participant observation Focus-group meetings Participants’ journals
Participants are asked two broad, general questions (Moustakas, 1994): What have you experienced in terms of the phenomenon? What contexts orsituations have influenced or affected your experiences of the phenomenon?
Researcher is the instrument.
Techniques: van Kaam (and Modified van Kaam)Stevick-Collazzi-Keen (and Modified Stevick-Collazzi-Keen) (Moustakas, 1994)
Epoche (bracketing) Development of significant statements and clusters of meaning Textural & Structural Description. Compose a complete description of the “essence” of the phenomenon (Moustakas, 1994).
Leading Interview Questions Researcher Bias/Interpretation Engender participants’ full descriptions of experience, using all five senses, where applicable
Adams, C., & Manen, M. (2008). Phenomenology. In L. Givens (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of qualitative research methods. (pp. 615-620). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Giorgi, A. (1997). The theory, practice, and evaluation of the phenomenological method as a qualitative research procedure. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 28(2)
Giorgi, A. (2012). The descriptive phenomenological psychological method. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 43, 3-12.
Husserl, E. (2012). Ideas: General introduction to pure phenomenology. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis Group.
Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Polkinghorne, D.E. (1989). Phenomenological research methods. In R.S. Valle & S. Halling (Eds.), Existential-phenomenological perspectives in psychology (pp. 41-60). New York: Plenum
van Manen, M. (1990). Researching lived experience: Human science for anaction sensitive pedagogy. Albany: State University of New York Press.